Testing, Evaluation, & Research Services

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Orientation

Exam Information

 

 

ABOUT PLACEMENT/QUALIFYING EXAMINATIONS

Several basic courses at Wayne State University (WSU) are taught with the expectation that the student has attained a certain level of knowledge and skill in the subject. Since it is better to be placed into a lower level course by taking an examination than to fail a higher-level course for which you are not adequately prepared, there is every reason to feel comfortable about taking the examinations. Prepare to do your best by reviewing the material on the web sites indicated and getting plenty of rest the night before your exam(s).

 

 

THE TESTS YOU NEED TO TAKE DEPEND ON SEVERAL FACTORS:

  • Your intended major.
  • Whether or not you have received credit through the Advanced Placement or College-Level Examination programs.
  • If you have achieved course placement by the ACT or SAT.
  • Whether or not you have met the University's General Education requirement for Mathematics via the ACT or SAT.

 

 

For Fall 2016 Placement

Subject

Type of Test

Testing Date

Test Score

Test Qualifications

Placement

Math Math Placement

ACT after October 1, 1989

 

SAT after October 1, 2005

ACT Math = 25 or higher

 

SAT Math = 580 or higher

  You have met the General Education requirement for Mathematics. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine if you need to take the Math Placement Exam. More info
Math Math Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Math = 29 or higher

 

SAT Math = 650

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into Math 2010. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine the best math course to take. Please register to take this course this semester. More info
Math Math Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Math = 26-28

 

SAT Math = 600-640

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into Math 1110, 1120, 1500 and 1800. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine the best math course to take. Please register to take this course this semester. More info
Math Math Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Math = 21-25

 

SAT Math = 500-590

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into Math 0995, 1000 and 1050. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine the best math course to take. Please register to take this course this semester. More info
Math Math Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Math = 18-25

 

SAT Math = 450-490

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into Math 1000. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine the best math course to take. Please register to take this course this semester. More info
Math Math Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Math = 0-17

 

SAT Math 200-440

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into Math 0993. Please register to take this course this semester.
English English Qualifying

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2013

ACT English = 21 or higher

 

SAT Writing = 480 or higher

Highest Test Score You have placed into ENG 1020.
English English Qualifying

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2013

ACT English = 01-20

 

SAT Writing = 470

Highest Test Score You have placed into ENG 1010.
Biology Biology Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Composite = 21 or higher

 

SAT Critical Reading + Math = 980 or higher

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into BIO 1500 or BIO 1510. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine if you need to take Biology. More info
Biology Biology Placement

ACT or SAT on or after

August 2014

ACT Composite =  01-20

 

SAT Critical Reading + Math = 200-970

Most Recent Test Score You have placed into BIO 1050. Please refer to your departmental requirements to determine if you need to take Biology. More info

 

 

Notes

  • Students are encouraged to visit STARS to ensure an official ACT or SAT test score is on record.
  • If you experience any difficulty using test scores for placement, contact the Testing Office at 313-577-3400.
  • If you are interested in taking a CLEP test on WSU's campus, visit the Testing website.
  • If you are interested in testing out of critical thinking or oral communication, please contact the Testing Office.
  • The transfer credit website can give you information about course credit that can be earned through AP or CLEP tests.

Math

  • Supplemental instruction is available for Math 0993.
  • Individuals who took the ACT or SAT before August 2014 should contact the Testing Office to register to take the Math Placement Test. It is especially important that you register to take Math your first semester.
  • Free study materials for the Math Placement Exam are available from the Math Department.

English

  • Students' English placement will expire three years from the date they took their most recent ACT or SAT.
  • Students are strongly encouraged to register for English their first semester or year, depending on the date of their most recent ACT or SAT test score.
  • Individuals who took the ACT or SAT before August 2013 should register to take the English Qualifying Exam.
  • For more information, contact the Testing Office at 313-577-3400.
  • Writing support for students is available at the Writing Center.

Biology

  • Individuals whose program requires biology and took the ACT or SAT before August 2014 should register to take the Biology Placement Exam.
  • For more information, contact the Testing Office at 313-577-3400.
  • Supplemental instruction is available for BIO 1500.

Chemistry

If you intend to pursue one of the following academic programs, you will also need to take the Chemistry Placement Examination:

  • Chemistry
  • Pre-Clinical Laboratory Science
  • Pre-Dental 
  • Pre-Medicine
  • Pre-Pharmacy
  • Pre-Physical Therapy
  • Biology
  • Cytotechnology
  • Engineering
  • Environmental Science
  • Geology
  • Nutrition and Food Science (including Dietetics)
  • Physics
  • Secondary Science Education

Transfers

We recommend that transfer students consult with an advisor to determine the appropriate examination(s) to take.

Biology, Chemistry and Mathematics Placement and English Qualifying Examinations

 

If you are a new (first-time-in-any-college) freshman or a freshman transferring with less than thirty credit hours, and you are trying to decide which exams you need to take, please visit the University Advising Center web site, http://www.advising.wayne.edu/wrkshp/test.php

How To Register for the Examination(s)

The examinations are not administered on a walk-in basis. You must register to reserve a seat for an examination at least one business day in advance of the desired date provided that room capacity has not already been reached.

  1. In Person Registration: If you wish to pay your test fee(s) with a check, money order, or WSU OneCard, come to Testing, Evaluation and Research Services, Room 686 Student Center Building, 5221 Gullen Mall (click here for map). Make your check or money order payable to Wayne State University. You may also use our public computer to make your credit card payment. Cash will not be accepted.
  2. Online registration: Click the "Register for Test Online" link at the top of this page. This will lead you to the online registration system where you may pay with a credit or debit card and choose your test date. You will receive an email confirmation of your payment and registration.

Examination Date Change(s) and Refunds

  1. You may reschedule a test registration a maximum of three times per fee payment.
  2. A refund can be processed only if the request is made before the day of the examination. Requests for refunds made on or after the examination date, or after the third reschedule, cannot be honored. 
  3. Examination fees not rescheduled or refunded are subject to forfeiture after one calendar year.
  4. Test fees are subject to change without notice.

 

On The Day of the Examination(s)

Bring government-issued, current, signed, photo-bearing identification (e.g., your state-issued driver’s license, state-issued ID card or passport), and your WSU Access ID and password with you to each examination.  The WSU OneCard is not acceptable identification.  If you are taking the Chemistry Placement Examination you may also bring a calculator that meets the criteria described below.  Be on time.  Late arrivals will not be admitted.

BIOLOGY PLACEMENT EXAMINATION

Please note: this is a test for placement into WSU Biology classes, NOT course credit. If you are interested in credit by exam, please click this link for CLEP.

 

CHEMISTRY PLACEMENT EXAMINATION

The American College Test (ACT) Composite score or the SAT Critical Reading plus Mathematics scores are used to determine placement in the following courses:

BIO1050        An Introduction to Life
BIO1500        Basic Life Diversity
BIO1510        Basic Life Mechanisms

ACT Composite Score
SAT Critical Reading + Mathematics Scores
21 or higher = placement into BIO1500/1510 980 or higher = placement into BIO1500/1510
20 or below = placement into BIO1050 970 or below = placement into BIO1050

Restrictions:

  1. The ACT score or SAT scores used may not be from an exam taken more than two years prior to enrollment in the course.
  2. If you have taken the ACT or the SAT more than once, the most recent score within the two year time frame applies.
  3. The course placement is valid for three semesters from the date of your admission to WSU, or until the ACT score or SAT scores age out, whichever occurs first.

Any student placing into BIO1050 via the ACT or SAT may take the Biology Placement Exam if he/she wishes to attempt placement into BIO1500 or BIO1510.  Students who have not taken the ACT or SAT, or have ACT or SAT scores more than two years old, must take the Biology Placement Exam to determine course placement.

Placement by ACT score is automatically added to your student record. If you wish to use your SAT score for placement into Biology, please follow this link: http://setwayne.weebly.com/sat-request.html.

The examination is a computer-based, 50-item multiple-choice test, timed for 60 minutes. The content is based on a one-year high school biology course that included a laboratory. To prepare for the exam review any high school biology textbook which has a thorough treatment of molecular and cell biology, animal and plant structure and physiology, populations and ecology, and evolutionary theory and evidence.  The total test administration time is approximately 90 minutes.   This examination may only be taken once per semester. Test results are valid for three semesters. The examination fee is $25.00.

Biology Placement Examination Schedule

Test results from the dates listed below are valid for course placement for the following semesters:

Fall 2016, Winter 2017, and Spring/Summer 2017

 

 

Day
Date
Time
Location
Notes
Tuesday
05/17/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
Friday
05/27/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
Tuesday
06/07/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Thursday
06/16/16
10:30 a.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
06/28/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Monday
07/11/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Thursday
07/21/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus
 
Monday
07/25/16
10:30 a.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
07/26/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
08/02/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Thursday
08/11/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
08/16/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus
Thursday
08/18/16
10:30 a.m.
Main Campus
Wednesday
08/24/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus

 

 

 

 

CHEMISTRY PLACEMENT EXAMINATION

 

Please note: this is a test for placement into WSU Chemistry classes, NOT course credit.  If you are interested in credit by exam, please click this link for CLEP.

 

CHEMISTRY PLACEMENT EXAMINATION

Students enrolling in the following programs should take the Chemistry Placement Exam: Pre-Medicine, Pre-Veterinary Medicine, Pre-Clinical Laboratory Science, Pre-Pharmacy, Pre-Physical Therapy, Biology, Chemistry, Engineering or Science Education.

Based on your score, the examination will place you into one or more of the following courses:


CHM 1040             Chemistry Skills and Reasoning
CHM 1220/1230    General Chemistry I/General Chemistry I Laboratory
CHM 1225/1230    General Chemistry I/General Chemistry I Laboratory

                                 [Open only to students in the College of Engineering]
CHM 1410             Chemical Principles I: General/Organic Chemistry


The examination is a computer-based 25-item multiple-choice test, timed for 60 minutes. The content is based on a one-year high school chemistry course that included a laboratory. A periodic table and on-screen scientific calculator are provided.  You may bring your own calculator if you wish.  The calculator you bring must be silent, hand-held, non-graphing, non-programmable, and cannot have an alphanumeric keyboard. Review material is available at http://www.chem.wayne.edu/students/undergrad_placement.html.  This examination may only be taken once per semester. Test results are valid for four semesters. The examination fee is $25.00.

 

Chemistry Placement Examination Schedule

Test results from the dates listed below are valid for course placement for the following semesters:

Fall 2016, Winter 2017, Spring/Summer 2017, and Fall 2017

 

 

Day
Date
Time
Location
Notes
Tuesday
05/17/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
Friday
05/27/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
Tuesday
06/07/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Thursday
06/16/16
10:30 a.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
06/28/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Monday
07/11/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Thursday
07/21/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus
 
Monday
07/25/16
10:30 a.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
07/26/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
08/02/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Thursday
08/11/16
3:30 p.m.
Main Campus
 
Tuesday
08/16/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus
Thursday
08/18/16
10:30 a.m.
Main Campus
Wednesday
08/24/16
2:00 p.m.
Main Campus

 

 

 

 

ENGLISH QUALIFYING EXAMINATION

The American College Test (ACT) score in English or the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score in Writing is used to determine placement into the appropriate basic composition course, i.e., ENG1010 or ENG1020.

ACT English Score
SAT Writing Score
21 or higher = placement into ENG1020 480 or higher = placement into ENG1020
20 or below = placement into ENG1010 470 or below = placement into ENG1010

Restrictions:

  1. The ACT or SAT score used may not be from an exam taken more than three years prior to enrollment in the course.
  2. If you have taken the ACT or SAT more than once, the highest score within the three year time frame applies.
  3. The course placement is valid for two years from the date of your admission to WSU, or until the ACT or SAT score ages out, whichever occurs first.

Any student placing into ENG1010 via the ACT or SAT may take the English Qualifying Exam if he/she wishes to attempt placement into ENG1020.  Students who have not taken the ACT or SAT, or have ACT or SAT scores more than three years old, must take the English Qualifying Exam to determine course placement.  Those students who have received transfer credit for WSU ENG1020, or credit for WSU ENG1020 through the Advanced Placement or College-Level Examination Programs, do not need to take the exam.

Placement by ACT score is automatically added to your student record. If you wish to use your SAT score for placement into English, please follow this link: http://setwayne.weebly.com/sat-request.html.

The examination is a computer-based impromptu essay, timed for 50 minutes. The total test administration time is approximately 75 minutes. No aids are permitted.  The examination fee is $43.00. The exam may only be taken twice within a two year period. Examination results are valid for three years. The WSU English Department will not change a course placement determined by the exam. Practice material is available online at this link: Practice Sample Questions

 

English Qualifying Examination Schedule

 

For placement starting Fall 2016

Day
Date
Time
Location
Notes

Thursday

05/12/16

9:00 a.m.
Main Campus

Friday

05/27/16

2:00 p.m.
Main Campus

Tuesday

06/14/16

2:00 p.m.
Main Campus

Friday

06/24/16

3:30 p.m.
Main Campus

Monday

07/11/16

3:30 p.m.
Main Campus

Monday

07/25/16

9:00 a.m.
Main Campus

Thursday

08/11/16

2:00 p.m.
Main Campus

Monday

08/22/16

10:30 a.m.
Main Campus

 

 

 

MATHEMATICS PLACEMENT EXAMINATION

 

All students who plan to take MAT 0995, 1000, 1050, 1110, 1120, 1500, 1800, or 2010 as their first mathematics course at Wayne State University (WSU) must place into the course according to the policies of the WSU Department of Mathematics. To determine the best course or test to take, students should consult with an academic advisor.

ACT, SAT and the MPE can be used for placement in mathematics. If there is a discrepancy between a valid MPE score and one or more valid standardized test scores, the higher placement will be used.

The Mathematics Placement Exam is also used to meet the University General Education requirement in Mathematics Competency.  For information on the requirement go to Mathematics Competency Information.

 

Course Placement Using an American College Test (ACT) or Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Math Score*

 

ACT Math Score SAT Math Score Placement
29 or higher 650 or higher MAT 2010 or lower
26 or higher 600 or higher MAT 1110, 1120, 1500, 1800 or lower
21 or higher 500 or higher MAT 0995, 1050 or lower
18 or higher 450 or higher MAT 1000, STA 1020 or lower
Below 18 Below 450

MAT 0900 or 0993 (These two courses do not require any placement to enroll.).

*The course you should choose is determined by your intended major. Please consult an academic advisor.

 

 

Restrictions to the above placements:
1. For MAT100 and STA 1020, the ACT or SAT Math score may not be from an exam taken more than two years prior to enrollment in the course.
2. For MAT 0995, 1050, 1110, 1120, 1500, 1800 or 2010 using an ACT or SAT Math score will be valid for three semesters from the date of your first semester of admission to WSU or two years from the date the exam was taken, whichever expires first.
3. If you have taken the ACT and/or SAT more than once, only the most recent score will be considered. If the most recent ACT and/or SAT scores were taken during the same month and year, the highest score will be used.

 

Course Placement by WSU Mathematics Placement Examination (MPE)


Any student who does not place into a MAT course using an ACT or SAT Math score as described above must take the MPE to determine MAT course placement. Students are also welcome to take the exam if they have taken the ACT and/or SAT, if they would like to attempt to place into a higher course.

 

The MPE may only be taken twice. Students should enroll in the course they are placed into the first time they take the test. However, all students may take the test one additional time within six months of the first attempt. After two attempts at the examination, students must enroll in the course into which they are placed within three semesters.

 

MPE Description

 

The examination consists of 55 multiple choice questions.  All students are given Part A (25 questions) and Part B (15 questions) for a total of 40 questions.  This portion is timed and is 80 minutes long.  Those students who wish to place into MAT 2010 also take Part C (15 questions), for a total of 55 questions.  This portion is an additional 40 minutes, for a total of 120 minutes if the student is taking all three parts.

 

No aids (e.g., a calculator) are permitted. Total test administration time, including checking ID, distributing test materials, etc., is approximately 2 1/2 hours.  Study guides are available at http://clas.wayne.edu/Math/Placement.  The examination fee is $25.00.

 

Course Placement Using WSU Mathematics Placement Examination (MPE)*

 

Scores indicate the number of items correctly answered.  Each problem is worth 1 point.

MPE Part A, B & C score of 38 or higher, and MPE Part C score of 5 or higher MAT 2010 or lower

MPE Part A & B score of 26 or higher, and MPE Part B score of 5 or higher

OR

MPE Part A, B & C score of 31 or higher and MPE Part C score of 5 or higher

MAT 1110, 1120, 1500, 1800 or lower
MPE Part A & B score of 19 or higher, or MPE Part A score of 14 or higher MAT 0995, 1000, 1050, or STA 1020 or lower
MPE below 14 for Part A, or MPE below 19 for Part A and B, or MPE below 23 for Part A, B, and C

MAT 0900 or 0993 (These two courses do not require any placement to enroll.)

*The course you should choose is determined by your intended major. Please consult an academic advisor.

Restrictions:
1. The MPE must be taken before classes begin for the semester in which you plan to take the course.
2. For MAT 1000 and STA 1020 placement only, scores will be honored for six semesters:  the semester for which the examination was taken and the five semesters immediately following.  For all other MAT courses, scores will be honored for three semesters: the semester for which the examination was taken and the two semesters immediately following. For the purposes of counting, there are three semesters: Fall, Winter, and Spring/Summer.
3. If you have taken the MPE more than once, only the highest valid test score will be considered.

If you place into a course below the level that you had expected, you may either take the lower level course or study independently and retake the examination if you are eligible to do so.

Students who score below 8 on Part A of the examination are strongly encouraged to contact the Mathematics Department for free software to help prepare to be successful in MAT 0900 or 0993. Please send your request to shereen@math.wayne.edu. For information about registering for MAT 0993, please contact the Rising Scholars Program, risingscholars@wayne.edu, Room 1316 F/AB, or 313-577-1887.

Once you have taken the examination, your results and placement are posted online at stars.wayne.edu under the Tests sub-heading.

 

Course Placement Using a Combination of ACT and MPE

If you have a valid ACT Math score on record, it will automatically be used in combination with your MPE score, and it may qualify you for a WSU mathematics course for which your MPE score alone would be insufficient. If you have taken the ACT more than once, only the most recent score will be considered.  The SAT Math score cannot be used in combination with the MPE score.

Examination Results/Repeats

The MPE results you receive will include 1) the math course(s) you are eligible to take within the time period specified, and 2) whether or not you have met the University General Education requirement in Mathematics. You may only take the MPE two times regardless of intent, i.e., for course placement and/or to meet the General Education Requirement for Mathematics. A second attempt must be completed within six months of the first attempt.

 

Mathematics Placement Examination Schedule

 

These test dates are for course placement beginning Fall 2016 and continuing according to the policy stated above.

 

Day
Date
Time
Location
Notes

Friday

05/13/16 1:30 p.m. Main Campus

Wednesday

05/25/16 1:30 p.m. Main Campus

Thursday

06/09/16 1:30 p.m. Main Campus

Tuesday

06/21/16 9:00 a.m. Main Campus  

Monday

06/27/16
1:30 p.m.
Main Campus  

Thursday

07/14/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus

Wednesday

07/20/16
1:30 p.m.
Main Campus

Thursday

07/28/16 9:00 a.m. Main Campus  

Saturday

08/06/16 9:00 a.m. Main Campus

Thursday

08/11/16 9:00 a.m. Main Campus

Monday

08/15/16
1:30 p.m.
Main Campus  

Wednesday

08/17/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus

Monday

08/22/16
1:30 p.m.
Main Campus  
Wednesday 08/24/16
9:00 a.m.
Main Campus  

 

 


Special Accommodations

If you have a documented disability that requires testing accommodations, you will need to register with Student Disability Services for coordination of these accommodations. The Student Disability Services (SDS) office is located at 1600 David Adamany Undergraduate Library in the Student Academic Success Services Department. To schedule an appointment, call 313-577-1851. Information about SDS can be found at http://studentdisability.wayne.edu/ .



FAQ2

Exam Information

Frequently Asked Questions

Should I take my exams before I attend Orientation?

Yes. At Orientation you will meet with an academic advisor to confirm your course selections for the upcoming semester. You will need to have completed your testing and received your test results in order for the advising and course selection process to be accurate and effective. For information on Orientation, please visit http://www.orientation.wayne.edu.

I took one or more Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in high school? Do I take the WSU placement exam(s) anyway?

In general, no. If you feel you did well enough to achieve at least an AP score of “3-qualified” wait to schedule the WSU placement exams, if needed, until after you have received your AP test results. The WSU AP policy is available at http://transfercredit.wayne.edu/tests.php.  At WSU no credit is awarded for an AP score of 2 or below, however, an AP Calculus score of 2 does satisfy Mathematics Competency (MC). 

Can I pay all my test fees with one check or money order?

Yes. All checks and money orders should be made payable to Wayne State University.

How long will it take to get my test results?

You will receive your Biology and Chemistry results when you finish testing.

The Mathematics Placement Exam results are available approximately one week after testing.

Most students will know the results of the English Qualifying Exam as soon as they finish testing.  In some cases, it will be necessary for the WSU English Department to review the essay submission to determine placement.  If your essay is one of those sent for review, you can expect test results approximately ten days after testing.

How will I receive my test results?

English and Mathematics results are sent to your WSU email address.  Biology and Chemistry results are available in Blackboard.  

I received my test results but the registration system will not allow me to sign up for the course. What should I do?

The Testing Office must post a Permit to Register permission in the student records system before you can register for a Biology, Chemistry, English or Math course.  If more than one week has passed since you received your test results and you are still unable to add your course, please call us.

How long are the test results valid?

Test results for the Biology Placement Exam are valid for three semesters.  Test results for the Chemistry Placement Exam are valid for four semesters. Test results for the English Qualifying Exam are valid for three years.  Validity of test results for the Mathematics Placement Exam vary, depending on the MAT course.

Can I register for my tests online?

No, you cannot register for a test online.  You can pay the test fee(s) online and then call our office with your CashNet receipt number(s) to complete your test registration.  See "How To Register For The Examination(s)" at the top of this page.

I don’t have a driver’s license. What can I use for identification when I test?

Acceptable identification must be government-issued, have a current photograph or physical description, a signature, and be valid (i.e., not expired). Examples of acceptable identification include a driver’s license, passport, or Michigan Personal Identification Card. Examples of unacceptable identification include a WSU OneCard, Social Security Card, birth certificate, credit card, or any expired ID.

I have a disability that requires special accommodations for testing. How do I arrange this?

Contact Student Disability Services, Room 1600 Adamany Undergraduate Library, 313-577-1851.

If I still have questions how do I contact your office?

You can reach the Testing, Evaluation and Research Services Office by phone at 313-577-3400 (choose option 3) or by sending an email to testing@wayne.edu.

How do I get to campus and where do I park?

For directions to campus, parking information and a campus map visit http://www.campusmap.wayne.edu or http://parking.wayne.edu.
We strongly recommend parking in a University parking structure. If you park at a meter, it may expire while you are in the middle of an exam.  Visitor parking at a WSU facility is payable by credit card only.